Lithium-ion batteries are a type of rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in portable electronics and electric vehicles, and are becoming increasingly popular in military and aerospace applications. Akira Yoshino developed a prototype lithium-ion battery in 1985 based on early research by JohnGoodenough, M. StanleyWhittingham, RachidYazami and KoichiMizushima in the 1970s to 1980s, and in 1991, Sony, led by YoshioNishi and AsahiKasei team developed a commercial lithium-ion battery in 1991.
In a lithium-ion battery, lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge through the electrolyte, and back when charging. Lithium-ion batteries use an embedded lithium compound as the cathode material, and the cathode material is usually graphite. Lithium-ion batteries have high energy density, no memory effect (except for LFP batteries) and low self-discharge.
Max Charging Voltage: The maximum allowable charging voltage for a lithium-ion battery cell is typically 4.2V. Exceeding this voltage can result in overcharging, which can degrade the battery's performance, shorten its lifespan, and even cause safety risks such as overheating or explosion.
Nominal Voltage: The nominal lithium ion battery voltage is typically 3.7V. This is the average voltage range at which the battery operates during normal usage.
Cut-Off Voltage: The cut-off voltage is the minimum voltage at which the battery should be discharged to prevent damage. For most lithium-ion batteries, the recommended cut-off voltage is around 3.0V.
Charging Voltage Limitations: It's important to note that the recommended charging voltage can vary depending on the specific lithium-ion cell chemistry and manufacturer. Some lithium-ion batteries may have slightly different charging voltage specifications, so it's always best to refer to the manufacturer's guidelines for the specific battery you are using.
The chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics of different types of lithium-ion batteries vary. Handheld electronics mostly use lithium polymer batteries (polymer gel as the electrolyte), lithium cobaltate (LiCoO2) cathode materials and graphite anodes, which together provide high energy density. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium manganate (LiMn2 oh4 spinel or lithium 2 manganese oxide 3-based lithium-rich layered material (LMR-NMC)) and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC) may provide longer life and may have better multiplier capability. Such lithium-ion batteries are widely used in power tools, medical devices and other roles.
Research areas for lithium-ion batteries include extending life, increasing energy density, improving safety, reducing cost, and increasing charging speed. Based on the flammability and volatility of organic solvents used in typical electrolytes, research is ongoing in the area of non-flammable electrolytes as a way to improve safety. Strategies include aqueous lithium-ion batteries, ceramic solid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes, ionic liquids, and re-fluorinated systems.